Types of trusted Platform module

  • DISCRETE TPM (TPM 1.2 & TPM 2.0)

Discrete TPM provides the highest level of security. The intent of this level is to ensure that the device it’s protecting does not get hacked via even sophisticated methods. To accomplish this, a discrete chip is designed, built and evaluated for the highest level of security that can resist tampering with the chip, including probing it and freezing it with all sorts of sophisticated attacks.


Integrated TPM is the next level down in terms of security. This level still has a hardware TPM but it is integrated into a chip that provides functions other than security. The hardware implementation makes it resistant to software bugs, however, this level is not designed to be tamper-resistant.


Firmware TPM is implemented in protected software. The code runs on the main CPU, so a separate chip is not required. While running like any other program, the code is in a protected execution environment called a trusted execution environment (TEE) that is separated from the rest of the programs that are running on the CPU. By doing this, secrets like private keys that might be needed by the TPM but should not be accessed by others can be kept in the TEE creating a more difficult path for hackers. In addition to the lack of tamper resistance, the downside to the TEE or firmware TPM is that now the TPM is dependent on many additional aspects to keep it secure, including the TEE operating system, bugs in the application code running in the TEE, etc.


Software TPM can be implemented as a software emulator of the TPM. However, a software TPM is open to many vulnerabilities, not only tampering but also the bugs in any operating system running it. It does have key applications: it is very good for testing or building a system prototype with a TPM in it. For testing purposes, a software TPM could provide the right solution/approach.

[mai mult...]

Windows 11 requirements

Windows 11 requirements needed to Install:

CPU – Dual core or better at 1ghz or faster, 64bit processor
RAM – 4gb
Storage – 64gb or more
GPU – DX 12 capable
Display Over 9″ with 720p
Secure Boot
UEFI boot method
Trusted Platform Module 2
Certain Intel & AMD CPU

Secure Boot & UEFI Boot Method

Windows 11 needs your PC to be set up in GPT drive format with UEFI boot method and capable of using Secure boot – it need not be enabled.

Switching to UEFI boot method without swapping drives to GPT first can leave PC unable to boot, on Gigabyte boards.

How to check if you have GPT or MBR drives
-open cmd (admin)
-type “diskpart” and press enter
-type list disk and press enter
-any drives with an asterix under GPT is already in GPT format.

[mai mult...]

Adata SD810 External SSD -review

Adata’s SD810 external SSD may sport modern 20Gbps (USB 3.2 Gen2 2×2) speeds, but its metal-wrapped and plastic-capped exterior design dates back to at least 2017. Still, it feels solid, offers IP68 water resistance (with its cap in place), and is almost as small as drives with more modern designs, like Crucial’s X10 Pro, one of the best external SSDs you can buy.

[mai mult...]

Sabrent Rocket 5 2TB SSD -review

The Sabrent Rocket 5 represents one of the fastest SSDs we’re ever tested. That’s fitting, as Sabrent made a name for itself in the storage space with the original Rocket SSD. The company also pushed out the first two 8TB M.2 drives with the Rocket Q and Rocket 4 Plus, and the first DirectStorage-optimized drive with the Rocket 4 Plus-G.

Now, it climbs to the top of the heap with a lightning fast PCIe 5.0 SSD that has been promised for quite some time. The wait has been worth it as the Rocket 5 is very fast indeed, and has some interesting results to separate it from other drives like the Crucial T705, competing with the best SSDs.

Sabrent waited to reveal its first PCIe 5.0 SSD until it knew it had could get the most out of the hardware. This bypassed the need for iterative updates, as happened with the original Rocket 4 Plus, and lets the drive leapfrog earlier models like the Crucial T700, Gigabyte Aorus Gen5 10000, and Corsair MP700. Sabrent also decided not to include a heatsink, which shouldn’t be a problem as most high-end motherboards include M.2 cooling. Aftermarket heatsinks also exist, and Sabrent makes those as well.

Sabrent has previously been a leader in providing 8TB drives first, so there’s a strong possibility we could see that for the Rocket 5 as well. The first 8TB PCIe 5.0 drive would be quite the achievement, though we don’t even want to think about pricing for such a drive right now.

The Rocket 5 is rated for up to 14,000 / 12,000 MB/s for sequential reads and writes, and up to 1,400K / 1,400K random read and write IOPS. These numbers are more conservative than the T705, even though the drives use the same hardware, so we would expect similar performance levels. The Rocket also has a five-year warranty with 600TB of writes per TB capacity. Even for a fast PCIe 5.0 SSD, that should be plenty.

[mai mult...]

Cooler Master MK770 Keyboard – review

This 96-percent, wireless mechanical keyboard comes in a “Macaron” color scheme with a mint green chassis and the key caps that are a combination of yellow, pink, and green pastels. While some might find this aesthetic garish — and for them there’s a SKU with a conservative “Space Gray” colorway — it’s very appropriate for a keyboard that stands out not only for its unique looks, but also for its incredible typing experience and value.

Available now for $119, the MK770 is packed with helpful features, including five different connectivity modes (3x Bluetooth, 1x 2.4-GHz and 1x wired), a built-in volume dial, and a customizable, though somewhat drab, RGB light show. However, its greatest feature is the combined gasket mount design and Kailh Box V2 switches — a perfect pairing for speed and comfort.

I’ve been using the MK770 as my daily driver for several weeks now and, to this point in my life, this is the most comfortable keyboard I have ever typed on. It deserves a place among the best wireless keyboards and best gaming keyboards.

If you don’t like the Macaron colorway, you can get the keyboard in Space Gray, which is a simple gray and black chassis with a mix of gray and black keycaps. Then you can jazz up the design by replacing the keycaps with more colorful ones.

At 15 x 5.5 x 1.5 inches (380.9 x 140.4 x 38.7 mm), this 96-percent keyboard takes up minimal desk space while packing in almost all the keys you need. These dimensions are very similar to my previous daily driver keyboard, the Akko 3098B (15 x 5.3 x 1.6 inches / 382 x 134 x 40mm) — though the Akko is a bit taller. At 2.3 pounds (1052g), the MK770 is light enough to carry in a bag.

The MK770 also has flip out feet with a shorter and taller mode. I like my keyboards angled up, so I always flip the feet out as far as they’ll go, and, in this case, the angle isn’t as tall as I’d like — bringing the rear up to just over 1.5 inches, while the Akko’s back is almost 2 inches tall. I much prefer the greater height, because I use a HyperX gel wrist rest that elevates my fingers.

[mai mult...]

Klevv CRAS C930 2TB SSD – review

The Klevv CRAS C930 may not be the most recognizable name in the SSD space, but it’s a company that lives under the SK hynix umbrella. CRAS is Latin for “tomorrow,” though given the core technology maybe it should have tried using the Latin word for “yesterday.” Still, the CRAS C930 is more than it first appears and isn’t exactly your everyday generic SSD, a fact further underlined by its uncommon hardware combination. But it does look the part.

The C930 uses an oft-maligned InnoGrit controller, but we think more care was put into this drive than many others. It does not perform poorly and the optional heatsink is a nice touch for desktop and PS5 users. We’re not sure if it’s the best choice for a laptop, but it will certainly work there, too. Essencore, the company behind the Klevv line, also offers Acronis True Image support. So while not on the level of Solidigm, it’s also not a fly-by-night enterprise, and the C930 is unique in its own way.

What keeps it from being generic is that Klevv has the option of using SK hynix flash, which is not seen as commonly as Micron NAND. This is especially true with the 176-layer variant that’s usually found on the Solidigm P44 Pro. The CRAS C930 uses this flash and comes with specific firmware on the controller to support it. The flash is only comparable to Micron’s offerings, but it’s nice to know what you’re getting in a drive, and we think the C930 may be more reliable than many similar counterparts as a result.

The Klevv CRAS C930 is nominally available at 1TB and 2TB, perhaps the two most popular capacities for drives in its space. At the time of writing, the drive was available for $79.99 and $143.99, but the 2TB drive seems to have disappeared from Amazon’s listings now. That’s unfortunate, as it’s a better gigabyte per dollar factor at 2TB, putting the CRAS C930, or C930 for short, near competitors like the Inland Gaming Performance Plus, Nextorage NEM-PA, Addlink A93, Teamgroup A440, and Silicon Power XS70, to list equivalent drives that come with a heatsink.

Note that the heatsink for the A440 and C930 is an optional, separate piece, which may set those two apart. It’s part of the 1TB package on Amazon, and we presume on the 2TB as well — our review sample included the heatsink. But it doesn’t come pre-attached, which makes things easier if you already have a superior heatsink you plan on using.

The C930’s performance specifications aren’t anything new, with the drive reaching up to 7,400 / 6,800 MB/s for sequential reads and writes and up to 1000K / 1000K random read and write IOPS. That’s pretty standard now for PCIe 4.0 drives, but at least it’s near the top of what you’ll see on such drives. The C930 is also supported by a 5-year warranty for up to 750 TB of writes per TB capacity. This is more than the standard 600 TB, but this factor doesn’t translate to more value. Klevv does state 256-bit AES encryption support, but if you see this on a drive it is important not to conflate it with TCG OPAL support.

[mai mult...]

Samsung 990 EVO 2TB SSD – Review

The Samsung 990 EVO aims to be the new mainstream SSD darling, and nothing quite excites like the launch of a new Samsung SSD. Following on the heels of the excellent Samsung 990 Pro, the 990 EVO has big shoes to fill if it wants to live up to the EVO name.

Aside from an interface that can hop from x4 PCIe 4.0 to x2 PCIe 5.0, it arrives with a new 5nm controller with the promise of great efficiency gains. Yet the flash is more mundane, with reduced bandwidth in a DRAM-less design. At least it’s a single-sided 2TB drive that can work well as a PS5 SSD or in your PC, though that’s pretty common these days.

This is a drive designed for laptops, OEMs, and pre-builts, with enough performance for gaming and everyday activities. It’s no 990 Pro, but neither is it supposed to be. It fills a gap in the line and offers a pared-back experience at an ostensibly lower cost. You get the Samsung name with excellent software support in a reliable package. At least, that’s the idea.

Instead we found the power efficiency to be questionable and it feels like the drive is trying to do too many things at once, possibly as a reflection of the current SSD market. What results is a careful balancing act, but the real issue right now is that the Samsung 990 Pro 2TB can be had for $169, which is only $10 more than the Samsung 990 EVO 2TB.

The Samsung 990 EVO is rated for up to 5,000 / 4,200 MB/s for sequential reads and writes as well as up to 700K / 800K random read and write IOPS. QD1 random read and write IOPS can hit 20K / 90K. It has the standard 5-year, 600TB of writes per TB capacity warranty. The drive does support TCG Opal 2.0 for encryption, which would make it a nice pick for laptop users in particular.

The drive also operates in both x4 PCIe 4.0 and x2 PCIe 5.0 modes, which adds some flexibility for future mobile platforms.

[mai mult...]

Akko MOD007B-HE PC – Review

Thank Wooting: Magnetic switches are all the rage heading into 2024, and Akko isn’t about to miss out on the fun. The brand has refreshed its MOD007B keyboard with a new polycarbonate model complete with hot-swappable Hall Effect magnetic switches. Rapid trigger, adjustable actuation, and multi-action keystrokes are all on the table with this keyboard. It’s not quite to the level of the popular Wooting magnetic keyboards, yet, but offers a superior typing experience that’s well worth considering for both gaming and regular typing.

The Akko MOD007B-HE Santorini is a compact tenkeyless (75%) mechanical keyboard with a unique sense of style. It’s part of the company’s World Tour series that highlights different locations with its color and keycap theme. The Santorini model is styled after the famous Greek isle and is immediately eye-catching.

It comes with a white polycarbonate (PC) case and keycaps that are themed blue and white. There’s something very bright and almost refreshing about it. The colors are meant to evoke the ocean and the architecture of the region. There are also themed modifier keys for Enter, Left and Right Shift, and the Spacebar, depicting scenes from the area with a painterly aesthetic, as well as a light blue Escape key bearing the Santorini crest.

The whole package looks very good, in my opinion, though it’s clearly a pretty overstated keyboard. Even the legends, which are blue-on-white and white-on-blue, have a seafaring serif font that’s unlike anything you’ll see on the vast majority of keyboards available today. You’ll either love it or hate it, but it pulls off its theme very well.

[mai mult...]

PNY XLR8 CS3140 SSD – review

PNY has been around for a long time, known in particular for its flash-based products, but also for its memory and GPUs. The company’s new XLR8 CS3140 SSD tops out at 7,500/6,850 MBps of sequential read/write throughput for the 2TB and larger models, and it’s also flexible in that it has both a version with a heatsink and one without, and you can also use a separate PlayStation 5 heatsink for the latter.

Last year, PNY reduced the endurance rating on its CS3030 SSD by almost 80% due to the impact of Chia cryptomining, which was known for killing SSDs with heavy write workloads. But PNY has now returned to high endurance ratings with the XLR8 CS3140.

We tested the new 1TB XLR8 CS3140 model, which is a good starting capacity, but the 2TB model offers better peak performance because it is packed with more flash dies. Naturally, the 4TB is even more compelling if you’re after more raw capacity. However, a basic primary drive is quite fine at 1TB, especially when coupled with strong hardware and a good SLC caching scheme like we see with the previous-gen CS3140.

[mai mult...]

Asus ZenScreen MB16QHG Portable Monitor-review

The ZenScreen MB249C features a 2560 x 1600 resolution (16:10) IPS panel and doubles the refresh rate of typical portable monitors to 120Hz. Throw in good color performance, a robust stand and one of the brightest panels we’ve seen for a portable monitor, and the MB16QHG has a lot going for it.

The ZenScreen MB16QHG is on the larger side for a portable, although obviously smaller than the 23.8-inch ZenScreen MB249C. I could fit it inside a bag designed for a 15.4-inch laptop.

Like some other ZenScreen monitors, the MB16QHG featured a hinged base rather than a kickstand or detachable/magnetic stand. This makes the unit a bit heavier, but it is solid and provides easy access to the ports. I also like this design arrangement because the cables connect low-down at desktop level and behind the screen. This way, the cables are largely out of sight and out of mind when using the monitor. Some monitors position the ports along the right and left edges of the display panel, making them an eyesore.

[mai mult...]